Research Articles

Assessment of COVID-19 linked fear perception in the community of Pakistan, 1 June to 31 July 2020



Introduction: Fear is the normal response to any perceived threat especially when it comes to contracting a new disease resulting in stress and anxiety. This study was conducted during the peak epidemic phase of COVID-19 in Pakistan to assess fear level among Pakistani population regarding COVID-19. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted during June-July 2020 in Pakistan. A pre-designed questionnaire based on “Fear of COVID-19 Scale” was distributed through email and social media platforms. Descriptive analysis was conducted and frequencies were calculated. Each response scored as 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The fear level was categorized as high (>20 score), Moderate (14-20 score) and low (<14 score). Inferential analysis was carried out using multiple logistic regression, at 95% confidence interval and p<0.05. Results: A total of 489 individuals were contacted and 404 individuals participated in this study (RR: 83%). Mean age remained 29 years (±14.5), males were 54.5% , literacy rate was 90.1%, employed were 89.1%, previously infected with COVID-19 were 49.5% and unmarried were 58.4%. The fear level remained as high (32%), moderate (38%) and low (30%). Multiple logistic regression showed that male (OR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.82-3.70, p=0.01), previously infected with COVID-19 (OR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.65-3.71, p=0.004) and high education level (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.18-4.71, p=0.03) remained significantly associated with the high level of fear. Conclusion & Recommendations: It is evident that a COVID-19 linked fear exists in different groups of Pakistani community especially among the previously infected cases and high educated persons. Therefore, there is a need to design and implement public health interventions according to the high risk for mitigation of COVID-19 linked fear.


  • Year: 2021
  • Volume: 3
  • DOI: 10.31646/gbio.119
  • Submitted on 24 Jun 2021
  • Published on 25 Nov 2021
  • Peer Reviewed