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Submissions should be made electronically through this website. Once submitted, the author can track the submission and communicate with the editors via the online journal management system.
Please ensure that you consider the following guidelines when preparing your manuscript.
Failure to do so may delay the processing of your submission.
Rapid reports (including outbreaks) - short analytical reports of no more than 1000 words and 15 references, describing a current outbreak or biosecurity event of concern. This could include analysis of an epidemic curve, attack rates, risk factors, field vaccine effectiveness, geospatial risk, phylogenetics or other aspect of outbreak investigation. If accepted, we will publish these within 1–3 months.
Watching briefs (outbreaks of concern) - descriptive information about current outbreaks of no more than 1500 words can be submitted using a prescribed template. These watching briefs are situation briefs that are useful for others in the field and for better understanding the outbreak. Feedback from operational stakeholders who manage or respond to outbreaks is that they are often too busy to review literature or obtain relevant background information to assist them with acute response. Unlike the Rapid Report option, which is a traditional analytical outbreak investigation report, Watching Briefs are intended as a rapid resource for public health or other first responders in the field on topical, serious or current outbreaks, and provide a digest of relevant information including key features of an outbreak, comparison with past outbreaks and a literature review. They can be completed by responders to an outbreak, or by anyone interested in an outbreak using public or open source data, including news reports. See below for making a open source data request.
Epidemic or outbreak analysis is complex, and analysis is usually restricted to members of the responding team. However, other experts can add new or critical inisghts to any given outbreak. We believe in the power of collective critical thinking in solving complex epidemic problems. In a new concept for journal publishing, we aim to harness the collective analytical minds of the world, and invite trainees or alumni of Field Epidemiology Training Programs, as well as other personnel involved in outbreak response, to submit a Watching Brief on any global outbreak, using field data or using open source data if they are not directly involved in the specific outbreak. Watching briefs are intended to be a resource for public health and other first responders in the field, who may not have the time to review past outbreaks or disease details. They can be completed by people involved in an outbreak response or by using publicly available data, according to our prescribed template. Watching briefs will be reviewed by members of our editorial team who are almuni of a recognised Field Epidemiology Training Program, and understand the science of outbreak investigation. Our editors will work with you to develop your Watching Brief into a valuable public health resource for others. You can also request open source outbreak data from 2016 onward, collected in our outbreak database, Epiwatch. To make a request, email epiwatch-ISER@unsw.edu.au and specify the disease or outbreak, start and end dates, and location (at a minimum, country).
Perspectives from the field - we seek to publish field perspectives from first responders in health, emergency management, defence, law enforcement or other relevant sectors in biosecurity. We believe this is a critical aspect of knowledge which is often overlooked, an understanding of which will enhance response capability. This could include perspectives on inter-operability, enablers and barriers to response, systems issues, occupational health and safety of responders, a specific response or other issue of operational concern. Perspectives should be no more than 1000 words, with up to 15 references.
CBRN News - the latest news on chemical, biological, radiation and nuclear (CBRN) events will be published by our CBRN expert. If you have news of interest, please contact our CBRN Editor, A/Prof David Heslop firstname.lastname@example.org
All word limits exclude referencing and citation. Where relevant, approvals from human or animal research ethics committees or institutional review boards should be cited in the methods.
To ensure blind peer review, please only list the title and abstract on the submitted manuscript file.
The names of all authors, affiliations, contact details, biography (optional) and the corresponding author details must be completed online as part of the submission process.
Author names should include a forename and a surname. Forenames cannot include only initials.
The affiliation should ideally include ‘Department, Institution, City, Country’, however only the Institution and Country are mandatory.
Research articles must have the main text prefaced by an abstract of no more than 250 words summarising the main arguments and conclusions of the article. This must have the
Research articles must have the main text prefaced by an abstract of no more than 350 words summarising the aims, methods, results, and conclusions of the article. This must have the heading ‘Abstract’ and be easily identified from the start of the main text.
A list of up to five Keywords must be placed below the abstract. The Abstract and Keywords should also be added to the metadata when making the initial online submission.
The body of the submission should be structured in a logical and easy to follow manner. A clear introduction should allow non-specialists in the subject an understanding of the publication and a background of the issue(s) involved. Aims, methods, results, discussion and conclusion may then follow to provide details of the information and research being presented.
Supplementary Files (optional)
Any supplementary/additional files that should link to the main publication must be listed, with a corresponding number, title and (optional) description. Ideally the supplementary files are also cited in the main text.
e.g. Supplementary file 1: Appendix. Scientific data related to the experiments.
Note: additional files will not be typeset so must be provided in their final form. They will be assigned a DOI and linked to from the publication.
Ethics and consent (if applicable)
Research involving human subjects, human material, or human data, must have been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Where applicable, studies must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee and the authors should include a statement within the article text detailing this approval, including the name of the ethics committee and reference number of the approval. The identity of the research subject(s) should be anonymised whenever possible. For research involving human subjects, informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained from participants (or their legal guardian).
Experiments using animals must follow national standards of care. For further information, click here.
Any acknowledgements must be headed and in a separate paragraph, placed after the main text but before the reference list.
Funding Information (optional)
Should the research have received a funding grant then the grant provider and grant number should be detailed.
If any of the authors have any competing interests then these must be declared. A short paragraph should be placed before the references. Guidelines for competing interests can be found here. If there are no competing interests to declare then the following statement should be present: The author(s) has/have no competing interests to declare.
Authors' contributions (optional)
A sentence or a short paragraph detailing the roles that each author held to contribute to the authorship of the submission.
All references cited within the submission must be listed at the end of the main text file in Vancouver format (numbered).
For the submission title:
Capitalise all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and subordinate conjunctions (i.e. as, because, although). Use lowercase for all articles, coordinate conjunctions and prepositions.
Headings within the main text:
First level headings in the text should follow the same rule as the main title.
For lower-level subheadings, only capitalise first letter and proper nouns.
Headings should be under 75 characters.
Submissions must be made in English. Authors are welcome to use American or British spellings as long as they are used consistently throughout the whole of the submission.
When referring to proper nouns and normal institutional titles, the official, original spelling must be used.
American or English grammar rules may be used as long as they are used consistently and match the spelling format (see above). For instance, you may use a serial comma or not.
The font used should be Times New Roman, 12 point. Underlined text should be avoided whenever possible. Bold text or italicised text to emphasise a point are permitted, but should be restricted to minimal occurrences to maximise their efficiency.
Use bullet points to denote a list without hierarchy or order of value. If the list indicates a specific sequence then a numbered list must be used.
Lists should be used sparingly to maximise their impact.
Use single quotation marks except for quotes within another speech, in which case double quotation marks are used.
Quotations that are longer than three lines in length must be in an indented paragraph separate from the main text.
The standard, non-italicised font must be used for all quotes.
It must be clear from the text and/or citation where the quote is sourced. If quoting from material that is under copyright then permission will need to be obtained from the copyright holder.
Acronyms & Abbreviations
With abbreviations, the crucial goal is to ensure that the reader – particularly one who may not be fully familiar with the topic or context being addressed – is able to follow along. Spell out almost all acronyms on first use, indicating the acronym in parentheses immediately thereafter. Use the acronym for all subsequent references.
A number of abbreviations are so common that they do not require the full text on the first instance. Examples of these can be found here.
Abbreviations should usually be in capital letters without full stops.
Common examples from Latin origin do not follow this rule and should be lower case and can include full stops.
Use of footnotes/endnotes
Use endnotes rather than footnotes (we refer to these as ‘Notes’ in the online publication). These will appear at the end of the main text, before ‘References’.
All notes should be used only where crucial clarifying information needs to be conveyed.
Avoid using notes for purposes of referencing, with in-text citations used instead. If in-text citations cannot be used, a source can be cited as part of a note.
Please insert the endnote marker after the end punctuation.
Symbols are permitted within the main text and datasets as long as they are commonly in use or have explanatory definition on their first usage.
Hyphenation, em and en dashes
There is no set rule on the use of hyphenation between words, as long as they are consistently used.
Em dashes should be used sparingly. If they are present, they should denote emphasis, change of thought or interruption to the main sentence and can replace commas, parentheses, colons or semicolons.
En dashes can be used to replace ‘to’ when indicating a range. No space should surround the dash.
For numbers zero to nine please spell the whole words. Please use figures for numbers 10 or higher.
We are happy for authors to use either words or figures to represent large whole figures (i.e. one million or 1,000,000) as long as the usage is consistent throughout the text.
If the sentence includes a series of numbers then figures must be used in each instance.
If the number appears as part of a dataset, in conjunction with a symbol or as part of a table then the figure must be used.
If a sentence starts with a number it must be spelt, or the sentence should be re-written so that it no longer starts with the number.
Do not use a comma for a decimal place.
Numbers that are less than zero must have ‘0’ precede the decimal point.
Units of measurement
Symbols following a figure to denote a unit of measurement must be taken from the latest SI brochure. See http://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/si_brochure_8_en.pdf for the full brochure.
Formulae must be proofed carefully by the author. Editors will not edit formulae. If special software has been used to create formulae, the way it is laid out is the way they will appear in the publication.
Figures, including graphs and diagrams, must be professionally and clearly presented. If a figure is not easy to understand or does not appear to be of a suitable quality, the editor may ask to re-render or omit it.
All figures must be cited within the main text, in consecutive order using Arabic numerals (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.).
Each figure must have an accompanying descriptive main title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the figure image. A short additional figure legend is optional to offer a further description.
Figure titles and legends should be placed within the text document, either after the paragraph of their first citation, or as a list after the references.
The source of the image should be included, along with any relevant copyright information and a statement of authorisation (if needed).
If your figure file includes text then please present the font as Ariel, Helvetica, or Verdana. This will mean that it matches the typeset text.
NOTE: All figures must be uploaded separately as supplementary files during the submission process, if possible in colour and at a resolution of at least 300dpi. Each file should not be more than 20MB. Standard formats accepted are: JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG, EPS. For line drawings, please provide the original vector file (e.g. .ai, or .eps).
Tables must be created using a word processor's table function, not tabbed text.
Tables should be included in the manuscript. The final layout will place the tables as close to their first citation as possible.
All tables must be cited within the main text, numbered with Arabic numerals in consecutive order (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, etc.).
Each table must have an accompanying descriptive title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the table. A short additional table legend is optional to offer a further description of the table. The table title and legend should be placed underneath the table.
Tables should not include:
NOTE: If there are more columns than can fit on a single page, then the table will be placed horizontally on the page. If it still can't fit horizontally on a page, the table will be broken into two.
In-text citations [Numeric]
Every use of information from other sources must be cited in the text so that it is clear that external material has been used. Each time a reference is being cited it should be in Vancouver style—represented by sequential numbers held within square brackets, within punctuation. Each citation should be a unique number. The reference list at the end of the publication will reflect this numbered list, with full reference data for each entry.
If citing multiple sources at the same point, separate the citations with a comma.
All citations must be listed at the end of the text file, in Vancouver style (numbered).
All reading materials should be included in ‘References’—works that have not been cited within the main text.
NOTE: DOIs should be included for all reference entries, where possible.
This journal uses the Vancouver system—see below for examples of how to format references.
Author AA, Author BB. Title. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.
Leaver BL, Ehrman M, Shekhtman, B. Achieving success in second language acquisition. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press; 2005.
Author AA. Chapter title. In: Editor A, Editor B (eds.) Title of book. Series title and number and edition (if appropriate). Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Page numbers.
Jacobs GM, Hall S. Implementing cooperative learning. In Richards JC and Renandya WA (eds) Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press. 2002. pp. 52-58.
Author AA, Author BB. Article title. Journal title. Year; Volume(issue): Pages. DOI
Radford M. Aesthetic and religious awareness among pupils: similarities and differences. British Journal of Music Education. 2001; 18(2): 151-159. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0265051701000249
Author A. Article title. Newspaper. Day Month Year of publication. URL (assessed day month year).
McMahon S. Fund new Victorian era. Herald Sun. (19 July 2010).http://www.heraldsun.com.au/ (assessed 02 March 2012).
Author A. Article title. Newspaper. Day month year of publication: page number.
Parker K. Plea for languages. Koori Mail, 3 December 2008: 19–20.
Author A. Title of paper. In: Editor AA, Editor BB. (eds.) Conference proceedings title, Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Page numbers.
Wittke M. Design, construction, supervision and long-term behaviour of tunnels in swelling rock. In: Van Cotthem A, Charlier R, Thimus JF, Tshibangu JP. (eds.) Eurock2006: multiphysics coupling and long-term behaviour in rock mechanics. In Proceedings of the International Symposium of the International Society for Rock Mechanics, EUROCK2006, 9–12 May 2006, Liège, Belgium. London: Taylor and Francis; 2006. 125–156.
Organisation. Title. Series/publication number. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Retrieved from (if online).
Department of Health. Choosing Health: making healthier choices easier, CM6374. London: Stationery Office; 2001.
Author AA. Thesis title. Type of thesis. Academic institution; Year. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx
Murray BP. Prior knowledge, two teaching approaches for metacognition: Main idea and summarization strategies in reading. PhD thesis. Fordham University, New York. 2008.
Author AA. Title of work. URL (accessed date month year).
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australia's health 2004.
As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.